Time for F1 Driver Safety Canopies?

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Time for F1 Driver Safety Canopies?

Message par 00521 le Mer Aoû 26, 2015 6:16 am

Dear Friends,

“Despite all the safety procedures in place the face, head, and neck are still exposed..”
-Anonymous FIA official


Every so often in international open wheel racing we have an accident with massive head injuries:

Justin Wilson,
Jules Bianchi,
Maria de Villota,
Henry Surtees,
Dan Wheldon,
Felipe Massa,
Robert Kubica,
Greg Moore,
Ayrton Senna,
Rubens Barrichello,
Mika Hakkinen


F1 can teams spend 100s of millions of dollars a season, and yet will not give a driver a roof over his head to save his life???

It is long past time to have drivers canopies.  

In the past several years, we have seen Alfredo Alonso narrowly miss decapitation by an inch, 2X as cars flew over his helmet.

Yes, I know that purists and the teams would say they are too heavy and too expensive, but they work in boat racing, they work in America's NHRA Top Fuel drag racing, where cars routinely hit over 325 mph in a 1/4 mile.

Full Head Protection in the event of a crash would eliminate the last, major, safety hole in F1.

Think about that.




http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/26/sports/autoracing/driver-killed-in-indycar-wreck-was-a-student-of-crashes.html?_r=0



NY TIMES 8/26/15 a écrit:Some have proposed that cockpits be covered with protective canopies like those on fighter jets, negating a signature feature of Indy Cars.

Racers in other disciplines, like top fuel drag racing, have successfully adopted canopies.

Canopy discussions in IndyCar became frequent after Takuma Sato narrowly escaped injury in a race at Detroit in May, when another driver crashed, and a piece of debris flew within inches of his face. The close call was caught on an in-car camera.

Ryan Hunter-Reay, the winner Sunday at Pocono, said that he would prefer a device more like a roof over a driver’s head, but that he had not yet seen a particular design he would endorse.

The International Automobile Federation, or F.I.A., which runs Formula One, said it had tested canopy designs on open cockpit F1 designs and found that the “risks outweigh possible benefits.”

Next month, a new round of testing will begin on cockpit protection innovations, including a series of vertical deflection blades that would mount in front of the driver, and a new halo design similar to the roof Hunter-Reay advocated.

Asked if IndyCar ought to take a serious look at any recommendations that might come out of the F.I.A. cockpit safety tests, Chip Ganassi, the owner of Karam’s car, said that if IndyCar was seriously interested in cockpit safety, it should “lead, not follow.”




http://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/motor/nhra/2013/02/12/top-fuel-canopy-antron-brown-don-schumacher-racing/1914579/


2/12/13 a écrit:
The first time he drove a Top Fuel car with a canopy, Antron Brown struggled to adjust.

The field of vision was narrowed, the fresh air gone. He felt claustrophobic. He couldn't see the car next to him. At times, he became confused about his pace while backing up after burnouts because his peripheral vision was limited.

Now, he and three others intend to use the canopy for the NHRA Mello Yello Drag Racing Series opener at Pomona, Calif., on Thursday.

"It's locked, sealed and delivered," said Brown, who won the Top Fuel championship in 2012, becoming the first African American in history to win a major auto racing title.

"After driving with it, it's definitely here to stay. I don't want to go back there again. Now you're in a fully enclosed cockpit.

It's ballistic.

It's bulletproof.

Things can't come to you."

And that's the point of the new device, designed by Brown's team, Don Schumacher Racing. It is available as an optional component for all Top Fuel cars this season. The canopy is built for safety, not aerodynamics, but it has created a bit of controversy.

The system adds weight to a car (about 30 pounds), adds cost (about $12,000), and requires a significant overhaul of the cockpit of a car, which typically costs about $250,000 to build. The cars with canopies need new seats, additional padding, and a new fire extinguishing system.




Cordial Best,

00521


Dernière édition par 00521 le Ven Aoû 28, 2015 6:45 am, édité 3 fois
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Re: Time for F1 Driver Safety Canopies?

Message par Jarnooo le Mer Aoû 26, 2015 8:59 am

I have to I say I was against canopies, purely from a tradition standpoint. However, I am sure there are people out there who can create a canopy that doesn't fully enclose the cockpit, perhaps more like an extended wind shield, because fully enclosed cockpits could cause other problems, from being tough to escape to extreme heat or what not.

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Re: Time for F1 Driver Safety Canopies?

Message par F1 forever le Mer Aoû 26, 2015 2:50 pm

00521 a écrit:Time for F1 Driver Safety Canopies? ABSOLUTELY. [...] It is long past time to have drivers canopies.

I think your view is too simplistic. It's time to introduce them when there's a solution that makes sense for the series.

And for F1 it's not - as you suggest - a matter of cost or weight. They are constantly researching this subject, but so far haven't found a viable solution:

http://www.espn.co.uk/f1/story/_/id/13514198/fia-determined-introduce-f1-cockpit-protection-future

Also, your list seems strange to me. For example Kubica, I'm not aware of him sustaining a "massive head injury" that would have been avoided by a canopy. But he did have a crash in a rally car that effectively ended his F1 career.

The conclusion from the Bianchi crash investigation also points in a very different direction from what you're suggesting:

It is not feasible to mitigate the injuries Bianchi suffered by either enclosing the driver’s cockpit, or fitting skirts to the crane. Neither approach is practical due to the very large forces involved in the accident between a 700kg car striking a 6500kg crane at a speed of 126kph. There is simply insufficient impact structure on a F1 car to absorb the energy of such an impact without either destroying the driver’s survival cell, or generating non-survivable decelerations.

http://www.fia.com/news/accident-panel

It's not as simple as putting a roof over their heads. The research is obviously ongoing, but at this point, it's clear that a viable solution has yet to be found for F1.
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Re: Time for F1 Driver Safety Canopies?

Message par 00521 le Mer Aoû 26, 2015 10:58 pm

Hi F1 Forever,

The Kubica accident I was referring to was his Canadian GP crash.. was that 2007?

You're correct, he did NOT suffer massive head injuries, just a major concussion and broken limbs, I believe.

It was an extremely close one, when it comes to life and death however.

In the old days, the perspex was higher. Then it became body work, then eventually was removed altogether.

I just refuse to believe that in our multi, multi-billion dollar, technology based sport a safety solution to this problem of crushing impact head injuries cannot be found.

We can make massive amounts of downforce with intricate carbon moldings, but cannot protect the drivers head from debris?  No, I think the real questions in not having such a safety mechanism are:

Driver's visibility of his surroundings,
Driver breathing / airflow (a/c can be added),
TV audience identification of drivers.


Now, is there any way that YOU can think of, or is it unnecessary from your perspective.

Regarding the lest, I think its pretty much correct otherwise, if not, please let me know.


Cordial Best,

00521






F1 forever a écrit:
00521 a écrit:Time for F1 Driver Safety Canopies? ABSOLUTELY. [...] It is long past time to have drivers canopies.

I think your view is too simplistic. It's time to introduce them when there's a solution that makes sense for the series.

And for F1 it's not - as you suggest - a matter of cost or weight. They are constantly researching this subject, but so far haven't found a viable solution:

http://www.espn.co.uk/f1/story/_/id/13514198/fia-determined-introduce-f1-cockpit-protection-future

Also, your list seems strange to me. For example Kubica, I'm not aware of him sustaining a "massive head injury" that would have been avoided by a canopy. But he did have a crash in a rally car that effectively ended his F1 career.

The conclusion from the Bianchi crash investigation also points in a very different direction from what you're suggesting:

It is not feasible to mitigate the injuries Bianchi suffered by either enclosing the driver’s cockpit, or fitting skirts to the crane. Neither approach is practical due to the very large forces involved in the accident between a 700kg car striking a 6500kg crane at a speed of 126kph. There is simply insufficient impact structure on a F1 car to absorb the energy of such an impact without either destroying the driver’s survival cell, or generating non-survivable decelerations.

http://www.fia.com/news/accident-panel

It's not as simple as putting a roof over their heads. The research is obviously ongoing, but at this point, it's clear that a viable solution has yet to be found for F1.
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Re: Time for F1 Driver Safety Canopies?

Message par F1 forever le Jeu Aoû 27, 2015 1:02 am

As for Kubica's accident, it was a massive impact, but the consequences were extremly light considering that:

http://www.autosport.com/news/report.php/id/59663

My impression from your post was that you were saying, there is a clear-cut path and they're not taking it for all the wrong reasons.

But really, even the drivers' union president Alex Wurz - after studying all the data and facts known so far - was, at this point, advising against it, even though he loves the general idea of it. So he's really convinced that the FIA is investing massively in that area, and it just doesn't makes sense yet. What good is it if you fix one safety hole while opening up three more?

And you know, Charlie Whiting is a guy that is highly respected by the drivers, and many talk about him like an old friend (which is what he probably has become for them) - and you can be sure that if there was a way to improve safety in that area, he'd want take it as soon as possible. I can imagine that there's nothing that is more tragic for him than losing one of those young guys that he feels responsible for, to a certain extent. And so all the right parties are involved here, and they trust each other.

I think Whiting really means it when he says:

"We have put in a huge amount of time, effort and research into this project, which has not been easy, in fact bloody hard. But I can definitely see the day when this will happen. One day there will be something that will decrease a driver's risk of injury.

"Whether it will be as good at protecting a driver from an object coming towards him as a fighter jet cockpit, I doubt that, but it will offer him protection. We have to persevere. We must make something, even if it's not 100% in terms of protecting the driver under all circumstances. But if it improves the situation it has to be good. There must be a way."

What I'm saying is, I think you'd be right for other series where you know they're cutting corners everywhere, from track safety to car safety - but F1 is different. They have massive resources, and pride themselves on being on the leading edge in all areas (even where it isn't visible for outsiders)... especially safety where they had this fantastic record over the last 20+ years.

So if they haven't found a viable way, despite working with the most advanced solution providers, then I guess the time is just not right...yet. But it's not because they (FIA, teams etc.) don't care enough about the lives of their drivers. I think they do genuinely care a lot, and that's why they're not rushing anything half-baked that might cost more lives than it could ever save.
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Re: Time for F1 Driver Safety Canopies?

Message par 00521 le Jeu Aoû 27, 2015 2:49 am

F1 Forever,

He's an opinion I just found... article also covers the FIA tests that you mentioned.

http://www.foxsports.com.au/motor-sport/formula-1-the-tradition-f1-must-let-go-in-the-pursuit-of-increasing-the-safety-for-drivers/story-e6frf3z3-1227500104283

Fox Sports.Au a écrit:I ADMIRE Top Fuel drag racing, and not just because watching an 8000 horsepower, nitromethane-fuelled monster is an awe-inspiring spectacle.

I admire it because it is a sport that is not afraid to throw out years of tradition in the name of keeping its drivers safe.

In 2008, in the wake of a crash that killed Funny Car racer Scott Kalitta, the sport turned its back on one of its signatures — racing over a quarter-mile (402 metre) distance. To this day, all nitro brackets race only as far as the 1000 foot (304.8m) mark.

Why? Simple: it automatically increased safety by inserting an extra 100 metres of run-off area at every track the NHRA races at — and without costing the venues or the teams a penny.

“I’ve become a big fan of NHRA for making a decision that quick,” drag racing legend John Force told ESPN at the time.

“They made a decision and didn’t play around with all that stuff we do politically.”

It’s that spirit that has put the sport’s open-wheel Top Fuel Dragsters ahead of its road racing cousins Formula 1 and IndyCar.




THE ARRIVAL OF THE SAFETY CANOPY
Since 2012, Top Fuel Dragsters have been allowed to race with a canopy over the driver’s compartment, shielding them from debris, concrete walls, light poles, or any structure or body that could conceivably come into the cockpit and strike the driver.

Developed by leading NHRA team Don Schumacher Racing and Aerodine Composites, it was inspired by the same kind of canopies used on drag boats and has been made available for purchase to any team wishing to run one.

The canopy is made out of a bulletproof material and can be retrofitted to existing cars. It opens from the rear with a latch triggered from inside by the driver or from the outside by safety workers.

To counteract fears of a driver being trapped in the cockpit amid a fire, a fresh-air breathing system will automatically kick in even if the driver is knocked unconscious while a fire extinguisher system takes care of the rest.


“The number one comment we get is, ‘What happens if there’s a fire?’” Aerodine president Craig McCarthy told Racer.

“And that’s a legitimate concern in an IndyCar where you’re sitting on the fuel tank. In a Top Fuel car, the fuel tank is 15 feet away, although the main fuel line does run through the cockpit.

“On the drag racing side, we designed a system with all kinds of ways to remove the canopy from inside the car, from outside the car, and we’ve added features for fire extinguisher access holes and have tried think of every type of situation.

“And there’s situations where having a canopy could be worse, or it could be better. Until it’s tested and tried, it’s hard to say one way or the other.”

DSR driver Antron Brown, who has used the canopy since 2013, believes the canopy saved his life when part of the front wing of his car snapped off during a run last year.

“(The wing) headed right back at me and hit the canopy,” Brown told USA Today. “It hit so hard that it buckled it but didn’t break it. I was going 315 mph at the time.

“If the canopy hadn’t been there to stop the wing, it would have hit me in the head. I wouldn’t be sitting here talking to you today.”


WE’VE BEEN HERE BEFORE
In reporting Justin Wilson’s accident and its subsequent tragic consequences, I instinctively went to describe it as a ‘freak’ accident.

Except that is far from the truth.

The exact same thing happened to James Hinchcliffe in May 2014.

During the inaugural Grand Prix of Indianapolis, the popular Canadian was struck in the helmet by a piece of debris while racing down the back straight.

It’s believed he was briefly knocked out by the impact. “Thank god he was on the brake,” said teammate Marco Andretti. Hinchcliffe was left concussed, but recovered to return to racing within weeks.

In a bitter coincidence, the debris that hit him came from the car of Justin Wilson.

It is not an isolated example.

Roberto Guerrero spent 17 days in a coma after he was struck in the head by a tyre in a testing crash at Indianapolis in 1987. He’d already survived a near-miss a few months earlier during the Indy 500, striking a loose wheel with the front of his car that, sadly, hit and killed a spectator in the top of the grandstand.

Luciano Burti’s Formula 1 career ended at the 2001 Belgian Grand Prix when his Prost crashed into the tyre barriers at the high-speed Blanchimont corner, his exposed helmet taking the brunt of the impact against the tyres.

Henry Surtees, 18-year-old son of motorcycle and Formula 1 world champion John Surtees, died during a Formula 2 race in 2009 when he was struck in the head by a flying wheel, knocked off of a car that had crashed ahead of him.

Felipe Massa sustained serious head injuries during practice for the 2009 Hungarian Grand Prix when he was hit just above the visor by debris. He was lucky to survive.

And then there are the countless near-misses that, but for a split-second, could have ended in tragedy.

The Surtees and Massa incidents, coming just one week apart, prompted the FIA to launch a full-scale investigation into how to make the cockpits of open-wheel cars safer, via a canopy or other device that deterred debris or objects from hitting a driver’s head.

In that time, the FIA has tested multiple options with varying degrees of success, but have so far been unable to determine a solution to go forward with.

It’s not through a lack of trying.

FIA Institute canopy test

FIA: THERE MUST BE A WAY, THIS WILL HAPPEN

A canopy, similar to the one developed by DSR and those used on fighter jets, has been tested by the FIA.

It has been ruled out as the best option on the grounds of its positives being outweighed by its negatives.

The testing carried out in 2011 involved a F1 wheel and tyre assembly, weighing around 20kg, being flung at the canopy at a speed of 225 km/h.

The fighter jet canopy performed exceptionally well at protecting a driver, but deflected the wheel and tyre high into the air — and potentially into the trackside crowd.

A tall windshield, made of three centimetre-thick polycarbonate, was also tested with less success.

Although the public safety argument is a valid one, more disappointing is F1 teams’ reluctance to plump for a canopy solution in the name of tradition — Formula 1 cars have always had the driver exposed in some way, shape or form.

For all those reasons, the FIA went back to the drawing board.

Two more options are currently tabled awaiting testing and development, both of which offer protection but without leaving the driver fully enclosed.

“The first (is) something from Mercedes,” FIA technical director Charlie Whiting told Autosport.

“It doesn’t cover the driver, you can still take the driver out, which is one of the most important things, and it’s a hoop above the drivers head and forward of it, but with one central stay.

“We are also looking at another device which is blades of varying heights which will be set on top of the chassis and in front of the driver at angles which will render them nearly invisible to him.”

The team the FIA have assembled to spearhead the research are no mugs; that it has taken them six years to come close to a genuine solution highlights the complexity of the issue.

There is more than just the matter of protecting the driver to consider, and the confines of a F1 or IndyCar-style car pose a different set of parameters to that of a Top Fuel dragster.

Extricating a driver, keeping them cool in races that stretch for hours rather than seconds, and clear vision for the person in the cockpit are all factors that need to be balanced.

The latter is far more of an issue in circuit racing, where driver’s need clear peripheral vision to be aware of the cars around them, than in drag racing.

“We have put in a huge amount of time, effort and research into this project, which has not been easy, in fact bloody hard,” Whiting said.

“But I can definitely see the day when this will happen. One day there will be something that will decrease a driver’s risk of injury.

“We have to persevere. We must make something, even if it’s not 100 per cent in terms of protecting the driver under all circumstances.”

TRADITION IS NO EXCUSE FOR INACTION
Tradition is a lovely thing. It is Formula 1’s and IndyCar’s rich history that has cemented their places in the sporting universe.

But there is no such thing as tradition when it comes to safety.

If we relied on tradition to dictate the direction of safety, helmet technology would have stagnated with leather skull caps, carbon fibre composites would have stayed in airplanes, and racetracks would still be lined with houses, trees and light poles.

But the pursuit of increased driver protection in one aspect must not put them at risk in another, nor must it increase the danger to marshals, spectators and other innocent bystanders.

It is a hard equation to balance, as the FIA is currently finding.

While it is appropriate that the fastest motorsport on earth came to its own solution the quickest, it is sad that a problem that impacts all manner of open-top racecars — one that should have been so obvious — could be overlooked for so long.

Senior figures across the sport acknowledge that it is now a matter of when, rather than if, increased driver protection measures will be introduced.

Now that must be backed up with action.

The need for a solution — the right solution — is great, but it is a race against the clock.

Time ran out for Henry Surtees. Time ran out for Justin Wilson. Time may be running out for any number of drivers.

Once again, “one day” may be too late.


Cordial Best,

00521
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Re: Time for F1 Driver Safety Canopies?

Message par F1 forever le Jeu Aoû 27, 2015 6:31 am

00521,
But the pursuit of increased driver protection in one aspect must not put them at risk in another, nor must it increase the danger to marshals, spectators and other innocent bystanders.

Exactly. I posted an espn article link above. There's another article right below it that you probably haven't noticed, which talks a lot more about the specifics of the FIA testing and pitfalls of canopies in F1:

http://www.espn.co.uk/f1/story/_/id/13514509/closed-cockpits-not-simple-solution

All things considered, I'm not surprised these things haven't been introduced (and aren't close to be introduced) in F1. From what I can tell, the downsides far outweigh the potential upside of maybe preventing one of those extremely rare accidents.

I don't see a dramatic "race against the clock" for F1 in this regard. It hasn't been "overlooked", quite the opposite, especially since Massa's accident. It will come whenever it's ready. And for now, even the experts that are closest to the matter just don't know when that will be, or what the solution will look like.

Meanwhile, the changes that have been implemented following the Bianchi accident make F1 safer yet again. The quest for improvements will never stop.
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Re: Time for F1 Driver Safety Canopies?

Message par 00521 le Ven Aoû 28, 2015 7:05 am

F1 Forever,

I have been impressed with the solution created by Formula One Powerboat, where canopies (with safety cells) have been in use since 1986, with survivability in a 150 MPH crash into water nearly a given.

http://eandt.theiet.org/magazine/2013/06/need-for-speed.cfm?origin=EtOtherStories

Formula One H2O a écrit:First developed by designer and racer Chris Hodges, this system was optional for a time due to the opposition of the drivers but, after it saved several drivers in major crashes, the UIM mandated it for all boats. In the early 1990s F1 boat builder Dave Burgess introduced a canopy that fully enclosed the cockpit to protect the driver from the full force of water in a nose-dive. In the late 1990s boat builder DAC introduced an airbag situated behind the driver that prevents the cockpit from completely submerging if the boat flips.

These specific changes in safety features were also accompanied by a progression of lighter and stronger composite hulls that also reduced the hazards of racing. F1 drivers now also wear a HANS Head and Neck Restraint device similar to that worn by their Formula One automobile racing counterparts to combat head and neck injuries.




F1 forever a écrit:00521,
But the pursuit of increased driver protection in one aspect must not put them at risk in another, nor must it increase the danger to marshals, spectators and other innocent bystanders.

Exactly. I posted an espn article link above. There's another article right below it that you probably haven't noticed, which talks a lot more about the specifics of the FIA testing and pitfalls of canopies in F1:

http://www.espn.co.uk/f1/story/_/id/13514509/closed-cockpits-not-simple-solution

All things considered, I'm not surprised these things haven't been introduced (and aren't close to be introduced) in F1. From what I can tell, the downsides far outweigh the potential upside of maybe preventing one of those extremely rare accidents.

I don't see a dramatic "race against the clock" for F1 in this regard. It hasn't been "overlooked", quite the opposite, especially since Massa's accident. It will come whenever it's ready. And for now, even the experts that are closest to the matter just don't know when that will be, or what the solution will look like.

Meanwhile, the changes that have been implemented following the Bianchi accident make F1 safer yet again. The quest for improvements will never stop.


Cordial Best,

00521
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Re: Time for F1 Driver Safety Canopies?

Message par Gary le Ven Aoû 28, 2015 10:38 am

I think F1 should find help for canopy solution from those powerboats, and from fighter cockpits.

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Re: Time for F1 Driver Safety Canopies?

Message par Ferrari le Ven Aoû 28, 2015 6:36 pm

It's just a matter of time... ugly or not.. I believe in the end there is the only way if we want to reduce accidents due to debris. Accidents like that of JB may be trickier to handle.

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Re: Time for F1 Driver Safety Canopies?

Message par 00521 le Sam Aoû 29, 2015 4:51 am

http://www.bbc.com/sport/0/formula1/34089253"]http://www.bbc.com/sport/0/formula1/34089253
BBC a écrit:
Justin Wilson death: Motorsport 'must improve' driver safety

Motorsport's governing body says it will continue to look at ways of improving driver safety following the death of British driver Justin Wilson.
Wilson, 37, died on Monday after he was struck by debris in Sunday's Pocono IndyCar 500 and crashed into a wall.
The FIA has tested a number of new designs, and is planning more - including the possible introduction of a protected, closed canopy cockpit.

"We must make something," said the FIA's F1 director Charlie Whiting.
"Even if it's not 100% in terms of protecting the driver under all circumstances.
"If it improves the situation, it has to be good. There must be a way."


The FIA has been looking into various methods to provide better protection for drivers' heads since Formula 1 driver Felipe Massa was hit on the helmet by a bouncing spring during qualifying for the 2009 Hungarian Grand Prix.
Cockpits enclosed by a fighter jet-style canopy had been considered, but were dismissed because of concerns about the strength of the cover.
However, the death of Wilson, who competed in F1 for Minardi in 2003, has brought the issue of open cockpits into question once again.
Brazilian former Formula 1 driver Lucas Di Grassi believes it is only a matter of time before closed canopies are introduced.
He wrote on Twitter:  "Canopies will be used in every single formula (open-wheel) series in the future. Not only for safety, but for aerodynamic improvement."
Formula 1
The FIA has tested a number of cockpit designs, including a fighter-jet style canopy, in an effort to improve driver safety
'Not the fix-all solution'

However, former Formula 1 world champion Mario Andretti believes the introduction of closed cockpits could bring with it other safety concerns.
"I think it probably brings on more problems than we have at the moment," Andretti, a four-time IndyCar champion, told BBC Radio 5 live.
"The vision, potential to be trapped and many other aspects. It is not the fix-all situation."


by BBC Sport's chief F1 writer Andrew Benson

"Formula 1's governing body has been making incremental but significant steps forward in head protection ever since the fateful Imola weekend in 1994, when Ayrton Senna was killed by a suspension arm piercing his helmet.
"The key difficulty has been finding a solution that increases head protection while not raising other safety issues, such as driver visibility and egress.
"Following the rejection of canopies and a forward roll-hoop a couple of years ago, on various grounds, a number of different ideas have come up.
"One has been dubbed the 'halo' - an oval structure emerging from behind the driver's head supported by a curved vertical strut at the front of the cockpit.
"Another is a series of vertical fins placed around the cockpit at angles which minimise the disruption to vision but which would deflect large objects.

Cordial Best,

00521
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Re: Time for F1 Driver Safety Canopies?

Message par 00521 le Ven Sep 04, 2015 8:57 pm

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00521

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Date d'inscription : 24/11/2009
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